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Micah

Date: 8th century BC 

Contents

Micha was born in Moreset, a small city in the kingdom of Judah, about 40 km southwest of the city of Jerusalem. Moréset is close to the great connecting route between Egypt and Mesopotamia, where the various armies pass. Micha preaches during the reigns of Kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, the same time as Isaiah. He experiences the following:

  • The arrival of the Assyrian army,

  • The fall of the city of Damascus in Syria,

  • The war between Israel and Judah,

  • The conquest of Galilee,

  • The downfall of Samaria,

  • The downfall of the kingdom of Israel,

  • Sargon's victory over Egypt.

This book is a collection of sermons and prophecies. It is arranged by subject and not chronologically. The style of the book varies according to the times and circumstances. At times Micha is fanatic and hard, at other times tender and compassionate.

Micha's message focuses primarily on Judah, although Israel and other countries are mentioned. His concern is for the oppressed, the poor who are exploited by the landowner. Farmers, farm workers and people with a small piece of their own land are terrorized by the rich, with connections in the highest circles. This abuse of power is condemned by Micah. Despite being from the countryside, Micha is aware of the corrupt life in the city. He condemns Jerusalem. This city has become the symbol of national corruption among:

  • Judges,

  • Government officials,

  • Religious leaders.

The basis for Micha's message is the righteousness of God. Micha does this the same way the prophet Amos did in the kingdom of Israel. He emphasizes that God requires of us justice and sham. In one of the well-known passages in the Old Testament, Micha says, "Not but to do justice, and to love faithfulness, and to walk humbly with your God (6:8).

Theological Themes

Micha brings a message of judgment. God will destroy the land by His judgment if it does not turn back from its erring ways (3:12). A century later, the prophet Jeremiah recalls these words and quotes them in his prophecy (Jeremiah 26:18). Micha gives a detailed prediction of the coming of the Messiah (5:1-14).

The Redeemer will:

  • Come from the city of Bethlehem,

  • Being human,

  • Its origin is in eternity.

He will:

  • Gather a group of righteous believers,

  • Establish a kingdom of righteousness on earth,

  • Provide help to the oppressed.

In the New Testament, Christ Jesus is designated as the fulfiller of this prophecy. The prophet Micha foretells that a kingdom of peace will come to all nations. Swords will be beaten into plowshares and spears into pruning hooks. It will be a time of peace, prosperity and abundance (4:1-5). God will rule over everything and there will be no more wars.

Main features

1. The coming judgment (1:1-16),
2. Judgment on wrongdoers (2:1-3:12),
3. The coming Kingdom of Peace (4:1-5),
4. Prophecy of Blessing and Judgment (4:6-14),
5. The coming Messiah and His kingdom (5:1-14),
6. God calls the nations to account (6:1-7:20).